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由 Heroku 的那帮人带来的构建 web app 的 12 条准则: I. Codebase:One codebase tracked in revision control, many deploys II. Dependencies:Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies III. Config:Store config in the environment IV. Backing Services:Treat backing services as attached resources V. Build, release, run:Strictly separate build and run stages VI. Processes:Execute the app as one or more stateless processes VII. Port binding:Export services via port binding VIII. Concurrency:Scale out via the process model IX. Disposability:Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown X. Dev/prod parity:Keep development, staging, and production as similar as possible XI. Logs:Treat logs as event streams XII. Admin processes:Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes

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